Nitiqat is the most recent iteration of “Saudization,” the effort to convert jobs held by expat workers into jobs held by Saudis. The programs has seen considerable succes, Nathan Field writes for the Saudi-US Trade Group. Structural reforms in employment have taken place — though other changes are still necessary. Employers are now facing real consequences when they try to skirt employment law; salaries have risen; companies whose existence depended on hiring low-wage, low-skill expats have been shuttered.
Over the past three years, the number of Saudis employed in the private sector has doubled; the number of women working has increased by a multiple of seven. Attitudes about manual labor seem to be changing as well. Saudis are beginning to accept jobs that were once — with no factual reason — deemed to be beneath them. This is helped by increases in salaries paid to those doing those jobs.
The factors that have led to the problems of employment developed over decades. Their solutions will, hopefully, not take as long. Those problems absolutely need to be solve, though, so what improvements have happened should be embraced.
Nitaqat Three Years On: A Summer 2014 Report Card
Four years into the Arab Spring, Saudi Arabia has been an oasis of relative calm and stability in an otherwise tumultuous Middle East region. This is partially because the perceived social, economic and political dysfunction resulting from Arab Spring reform movements has had a sobering effect on Saudi perceptions. In fact, many Saudis consider the chief consequence of the Arab Spring to be unprecedented “Fowda” (chaos). As a result, the government’s Edmund Burkian message that sudden, radical reform leads to traumatizing political and economic instability is widely accepted.
However, the sobering reality of regional instability has not been the only brake on pressure for political reform in Saudi Arabia. Meaningful domestic reform undertaken by the government since 2011 has also had an effect.
In particular, the Ministry of Labor has been leading an aggressive labor reform campaign that has begun to re-balance the labor – employer relationship in ways that are more favorable to normal, average Saudis. In December 2012, the Saudi-US Trade Group (SUSTG) published Nitaqat: Towards a Saudi New Deal, my analysis of the Nitaqat initiative up to that point. My assessment was that, based on the available information at the time, some significant results had been achieved in Year One following the Arab Spring. This article will evaluate the progress of the labor reform program based on the data that has emerged in the ensuing eighteen months.
As of summer 2014, three years into what must be understood as a long-term project, the available evidence suggests the Ministry of Labor is progressing towards its goals, meaningful progress is occurring and that the foundations of longer-term sustained success are in place.
Today’s Arab News carries several articles that bear on the Nitiqat process:
In 2002, a fire at a girls school in Mecca claimed the lives of 15 students. An investigation into the event identified several contributing factors. Among them was the fact that many girls schools were being operated, not out of purpose-build schools, but in rented facilities that had been constructed for other purposes, often as apartments.
The situation hasn’t changed a great deal over the past decade, according to a report in Saudi Gazette. Parents of girls attending schools in Jeddah are pointing out the sub-standard buildings into which they entrust their daughters. They’re not happy about it, reasonably enough. The schools may have desks and blackboards, perhaps even computers, but they’re sorely lacking in even basic safety measures.
2,000 girls in Jeddah face danger of school collapse
Saudi Gazette report
JEDDAH — There are concerns that a two-story rented building in north Jeddah that has been converted into a government school poses a serious threat to the lives of the 2,000 girls that use it, reported Makkah daily.
The building in the Hamadaniyah area looks perfect from outside but inside it lacks all safety measures, parents and teachers claimed.
Though the building bears a signboard saying it is the 96th elementary school for girls, in fact it has also been made into an intermediate and secondary school.
The 800 elementary students come to school early in the morning and leave about at 11 a.m.
The 1,200 intermediate and secondary students will come immediately after that and remain until around 6 p.m. There is no other government school for girls in the neighborhood, which is why it looks after so many students.
While they can’t drive cars in the Kingdom, Saudi women drive themselves toward success, a report from Oxford Strategic Consulting says. Al Arabiya TV extracts this from a press release by the group that notes Saudi women’s achievement in academics, but also their uphill struggles against societal barriers. An interesting data point pulled out of the study is that Saudi men are more motivated by religion or beliefs than by achievement for its own sake.
Neither link goes to the study itself. Just how questions were phrased and interpreted is not made clear. The overall results, however, confirm my own experience with Saudi women: they are truly interested in showing that they can manage for themselves and they do — when given the chance.
A considerably larger proportion of Saudi females are more likely to “strive to achieve” than their male counterparts, a survey found earlier this week, putting the figures at 35 percent and 20 percent of respondents respectively.
The survey, which was commissioned by Oxford Strategic Consulting, and released by the UK/Dubai-based HR consultancy, and polled nearly 1,000 Saudi nationals living in kingdom, asked respondents to list three things that most motivated them and three things that most discouraged them.
The survey indicated that Saudi women were also markedly more prone than men to feel discouraged by their own negative feelings (49% cf. 35%) and lack of personal achievement (24% cf. 14%), the report said.
Young Saudis are changing their expectations about work, Al Arabiya TV reports. Rather than waiting around for high-status/low-productivity jobs in the public sector, they are now looking at and taking jobs in the service sector. They are bucking this (recent) historical social disdain for these jobs because they realize that any moral job that pays a salary is a respectable job and that earning a salary is much better than not earning a salary. Saudi males are starting to catch up with the women, who have had far more pragmatic ideas about work.
A large number of young Saudis have joined jobs that were considered beneath them in the past and are proving that such negative traditions and norms are not an obstacle to their ambitions.
It has become normal to see young Saudis working in men’s fashion shops, restaurants and coffee shops, serving customers to acquire the experience and work culture that will allow them to achieve higher goals.
These Saudis are reflected in the recent data released by the Ministry of Labor that showed the number of Saudis working in the private sector has reached 1.47 million in 2013, representing a 332.2 percent increase from 2012.
This increase was also helped by the ministry’s Saudization efforts and the security campaigns that were conducted against illegal workers, Al-Hayat daily reported.
Saudi Gazette reports on the latest demographics of Saudi Arabia. According to the report, Saudis represent 68% of the population, leaving 32% as resident expatriates. The ratio of Saudi males to females is close to 50:50, with 10.18 males compared to 10.09 females, in keeping with the global ratio of the sexes.
Saudis account for 68% of Kingdom’s population
Saudi Gazette report
JEDDAH — There were 20.27 million Saudi citizens at the end of 2013, accounting for about 68 percent of the Kingdom’s total population of 29.99 million, local daily Al-Madinah reported Wednesday.
Quoting an official statistical report by he Central Department of Statistics and Information, the newspaper said the Kingdom’s population went up by 2.7 percent last year, from 29.2 million in 2012.
The report said there were 10.18 million Saudi males, 34 percent of the entire population, compared to 10.09 million females (33.6 percent).
The report said there were 9.92 million non-Saudis living in the Kingdom in 2013, representing about 32 percent of the population.
According to the report, there were 6.64 million male expatriates (22.1 percent) and 3.08 million women (10.3 percent).
In Saudi Arabia, the issue of women’s working is a fraught one. People argue about whether women should be working outside the home at all. And then they argue about which kinds of jobs are “appropriate” for Saudi women.
There was huge social outcry when some Saudi women said that they were willing and able to take jobs as maids. This was “beneath their dignity,” many declared. Starving with dignity, I guess, is preferred.
But nursing as a profession is also a societal flashpoint. Nurses have to deal with patients and their bodies. They might even have to deal with patients of the opposite sex — and their bodies. And there’s the problem. Saudi society has developed an unnecessary linkage between bodies and sex and sex is a highly regulated (in principle) subject. Until recently, only Saudi orphans could work as nurses because — as they had no families to be ashamed — they were viewed as shameless.
That attitude hasn’t changed much, according to this story in Saudi Gazette. Saudi women still have to deal with stereotypes (from God-knows-where) that nursing is somehow comparable to immoral behavior. Hospitals, to the dismay of some, means the mixing of the sexes in the workplace. Worst of all, it includes bodies. sometimes, naked bodies that have to be touched. This might be acceptable for expat nurses (God knows their morals are already questionable), but it is not acceptable for good Saudi women.
Saudi nurses still tackling stereotypes
Saudi Gazette report
MAKKAH — A number of young Saudi women nurses are facing problems and obstacles in their work environment that hinder them from performing their duties properly.
Nurse Abeer Al-Sa’edi told Makkah Daily that some people reject the idea of women working as it allows for both genders to mingle, going against Saudi traditions.
She said: “There is no doubt that some television dramas give the wrong image of working nurses and instilled incorrect stereotypes in the minds of many who are against women working in this sector.”
Iman, another nurse, stressed the need to develop nursing by providing nurses with the necessary knowledge and professional development in addition to improving the image of the profession in the community by highlighting the role of employees.
Arab News reports that Saudi women are taking birth control seriously. The article — which has a mishmash of figures that really do not provide clarity to the article — does point out the increased use of birth control in the country. The expense of large families is deemed to be the major factor, though not rushing into pregnancy upon marriage is also cited.
SR108m spent on birth control pills
JEDDAH: RIMA AL-MUKHTAR
Saudi women have bought over six million birth control pills costing SR108 million last year, according to a study by Saudi-based pharmacies, Makkah newspaper reported.
The total sale of the medication amounts to SR108,585,594 for about 5,877,318 medical boxes and units while the list also shows that women usually buy certain brands, with the Gynera brand being in the lead with sales of SR34.2 million, followed by Yasmin at SR27.2 million, Marvelon at SR23 million and Neo Sampoon at SR4,600,000 last year.
Economist Thamer Abduwahhab blames the high cost of living in the Kingdom as the reason for families who are resorting to limit their size. “Everything is expensive these days, from the cost of giving birth in hospital to clothing, food and schooling,” he said. “Families now prefer to have a maximum three children and some believe that one child is enough for them and that’s all they can afford,” he added.
According to a report in the UAE’s Gulf News, the number of Saudi women employed in the private sector has doubled over the past year to reach 400K. This is explosive growth compared to the 48K figure that pertained in 2009 and a ten-fold increase since 2004.
Various measures have led to this result including increased salaries for teachers and the banning of male employees in lingerie shops. There’s still a lot of work to be done to increase the number of Saudis in jobs, both male and female, but this is an impressive mark.
Number of Saudi women employed in private sector doubles
Habib Toumi – Bureau Chief
Manama: The number of Saudi women employed in the private sector almost doubled in one year to reach 400,000 last year, an official report has indicated.
The meteoric rise from 48,406 women in 2009 to 100,000 in 2011 and 200,000 in 2012 is a clear indication of the success of the ambitious drive by the authorities to find employment opportunities for women in the conservative society that has strongly resisted allowing women to take up jobs in the private sector.
According to the report prepared by the labour ministry, the opening up of opportunities for women to work in the industrial and commercial sectors, as well in shops, has contributed massively to the high employment figures, local daily Al Eqtisadiya reported on Monday.
Back before the last round of Municipal Elections in 2011, Saudi women were told that they would be able to take part in the elections. Then it was discovered that it would not be possible to set up women-safe voting environments in time, so the women were told, “Sorry!”
Now, with the next round of elections coming in 2015, the government is once again assuring women that they’ll be taking part. The government and municipalities have certainly had time to address the issues that preventing participation. We need only wait to see if some other reason pops up at the last minute that will again thwart women’s playing their political role.
Given that women are now sitting on the Shoura Council and that women’s roles in Saudi life have been expanding, I think there’s every reason to believe that their voting will happen. We’ll have to wait a while to see. Arab News reports…
The Council of Ministers has approved legislation that would allow Saudi women to vote and stand as candidates in upcoming municipal council elections.
Women were not allowed to participate in the 2011 elections but Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques had ordered shortly before the polls that they should be allowed to do so from the 2015 elections onwards.
The law allows councils to approve and implement municipal plans and programs approved in the budget. They would also oversee maintenance, operating, development and investment projects, the law states.
I note that I’ve been writing Crossroads Arabia for ten years now. I actually started in May, 2004, but by July had settled into this format and platform.
A lot has gone on over these ten years. A new King in Saudi Arabia, increased attacks on Saudi Arabia by Al-Qaeda and Al-Qaeda related groups as well as the effective Saudi counter-offensive. Reforms in social policies, in the legal system, and in lightening the hand that seeks to control women have all taken place. Saudi women have taken part in the international Olympics. New laws and regulations have been adopted that have bettered the working conditions of foreign workers while others have served to chase many of those workers out of the Kingdom to be replaced by Saudi workers.
Saudi Arabia remains a work in progress and I look forward to recording that progress over the coming years.
The Saudi government is now ready to set closing times for businesses across the Kingdom. A commission established to address the issue has come up with regulations that would see most shops close at 9:00PM. During Ramadan, when most social activity switches to nighttime, the closing hour will be 2:00AM.
Exceptions are made for 24-hour operations and recreational venues, including restaurants, but they will face closing at midnight or 1:00AM on holidays and weekends.
The principal reasoning behind the new opening and closing times is to make jobs in these sectors more attractive to Saudi employees, both male and female. Saudis, many of whom have family obligations, just aren’t interested in working until the wee hours.
Regulations for 9 p.m. shop closure finalized
Saudi Gazette report
RIYADH — A high commission set up to develop the regulations ensuring retailers close at 9 p.m. has completed its task.
The commission is represented by a number of government bodies and the new regulations will oblige shops to trade from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m.
The new regulations, however, have exempted stores in the central areas of Makkah and Madinah.
These businesses will be regulated by the city councils, which will also ensure they do not close any later than 2 a.m. during Ramadan, except for restaurants that are allowed to open until suhoor (the meal before starting the day’s fast).
Shops that are required to open for 24 hours will be regulated by a joint committee of the labor, interior, rural and municipal affairs ministries, while recreational centers, amusement parks and restaurants will close at midnight during the week and at 1 a.m. during the weekends and holidays.
Saudis are debating the proper place for women in — of all things — the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice. Some see women’s presence in the field operations of the religious police as a necessary thing. Others think that desk jobs might be more appropriate. Yet others are concerned that unrelated men and women, working together even on a religious mission, might be a temptation too far. At least the issue is being discussed, as Saudi Gazette reports…
THE Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice (Haia) plays a major role in protecting Saudi society’s moral fabric through its awareness campaigns and regulatory mission. However, despite the long history of the commission, it remains divided on whether women should join their male counterparts and work as field officers.
The topic is not new and has been discussed before, but with Saudi women joining the country’s labor force in large numbers women working for the Haia is not impossible. Supporters of the idea say now is the time to employ women in the Haia while others believe the idea should be extensively studied before a decision is made, Al-Madinah newspaper reported.
Sami Omar Al-Sibah, faculty member at the College of Dawa and Usul-ud-Din at Umm Al-Qura University, said women working for the Haia, particularly in field missions, is a step in the right direction but said the issue needs to be studied thoroughly.
“This topic addresses mainly the role of women in society and the sort of job opportunities available to them. Other issues such as guardianship, protection and segregation will be brought up if we allow women to participate in field missions. It is important to move forward but care must be taken in order for us to avoid future calamities,” he said.